See Explanation

Adjectives give extra information about nouns. They don’t have genre or number but they change their form to construct the comparative or the superalive. The difficulty of adjetives lies on the dealing with the sequence of  groups of them.

Some common suffixes that occur with adjectives are:

-able, -ible reasonable acceptable incredibly terrible
-al, -ial critical ideal social official
-ed bored depressed worried excited
-ful careful beautiful hopeful graceful
-ic archaic frantic gigantic horrific
-ical hysterical political historical musical
-ish foolish childish selfish stylish
-ive,  -ative talkative active attractive effective
-less hopeless careless priceless endless
-eous, -ious, -ous spontaneous ambitious  famous victorious
-y angry busy brainy lively


Possessive Adjectives

Adjective order chart

Comparison Basic



See Explanation


Adverbs (manner – frequency – time – place)


See Explanation




See Explanation

Conditionals describe situations that are possible, unlikely or impossible.

Conditionals basic



See Explanation


This – That – These – Those


See Explanation

Determiners make the reference of nouns more specific.
There are eight classes of Determiners:

  • Indefinite Article: a – an
  • Definite Article: the
  • Demostratives: this, that, these, those
  • Possessives: my, your, his, her, its, our, their (see pronouns)
  • Quantifiers: some, any, enough, no, all, both, half, double, several, much, many, more, most, few, fewer, fewest, a few, little (not much), less, least, a little. Quantifiers*
  • The numbers: Ordinal & Cardinal numbers
  • Distributives: Each, every, either, neither
  • Exclamatives: What, such

Indefinite Articles A-An

Genitive: Idoia’s car


See Explanation

Modal verbs express mode or mood through ability, obligation, advice, deduction, certainty, probability, speculation… and are different from other verbs…

  • They are followed by an infinitive without to: I can jump
  • The verb on the third-person singular doesn’t take an s: She must go
  • They don’t need an auxiliary verb: She might not go. Could she drive?

Some of the most common are: can, must, might, may, could, should, ought to, would, will, shall…

Modal functions

Modal functions basic


See Explanation


The “voice” of a verb indicates whether the subject of the sentence is doing or receiving the action.


If a verb is in the active voice, the person, animal, or thing who or which performs the action is the subject of the verb.

The subject of an active clause says who or what does what the verb expresses.

  • Active voice: The monkey ate the banana (doing)


In the passive voice, the person, animal, or thing who or which is affected by the action is the subject of the verb.

The subject of a passive clause does not perform the action expressed by the verb but is affected by it.

  • Passive voice: The banana was eaten by the monkey (receiving)


TO BE + V3

To change an active sentence into a passive sentence we use the verb TO BE as an auxiliary:

The monkey ate the banana → The banana WAS eaten by the monkey 

The TENSE of the verb in the active sentence is ‘given’ to the auxiliary verb:

ATE (Past Simple) → WAS (Past Simple)

The main verb appears after the auxiliary, always in the Past Participle:

The banana was EATEN by the monkey 


If the subject of the active sentence is relevant, it should be reflected in the passive sentence after the preposition BY and it is called the agent. A pronoun is never relevant.

The banana was eaten BY the monkey

Active: They drove the car → Passive: The car was driven by THEM


Passives basic


See Explanation

Time prepositions

Prepositions (Time): At, In, On

Prepositions. In – On – Under – Between – Behind – In front of

Place prepositions primary school*

Place prepositions basic*

Prepositions (Place): Under, On, In


See Explanation


All pronouns chart*

Pronouns basic*

Pronombres Personales de Objeto

Pronombres Personales Sujeto Objeto y Adjetivos Posesivos

Subject and Object personal pronouns (me/him/her/us/they)


See Explanation



There is/are – some/any – much/many/a lot

Questions Words

See Explanation


Question Words (what-where-who-when-How old- How many)


See Explanation


Relative clauses chart*

EXERCISES: Relatives

Reported Speech

See Explanation


Reported Speech basic*

Reported Speech Intermediate*

EXERCISES: Transform into reported speech*

Spelling Rules

See Explanation


Spelling: ING – ED – S

Verb Patterns

See Explanation


Verb Patterns basic

Verb Patterns

Verb Tenses

See Explanation


PRESENT TENSES: Uses & Examples

PAST TENSES: Uses & Examples

FUTURE TENSES: Uses & Examples

Present simple Be – Have got – Verbos kk

Past Simple

Present simple Be – Have got – Verbos kk (elemental)

Verb Charts & Lists

See Explanation


Verb Tenses Chart

Irregular Verb LIST

Irregular Verbs PRACTICE

Irregular Verb List

Verb – Important

See Explanation


Be – Have got

Have got: descriptions

Be – Have got – Verbos kk